Author: Edgar Patterson

The Significance of Lord Russell and the British During the Civil War

Lord John Russell was the foreign secretary in Great Britain during the fall of 1862. It was a challenging period internationally as America sank deeper into its Civil War. The Confederates were marching on Washington, a cotton famine was creating economic problems, and the Union was experiencing numerous defeats.

Russell met with Lord Palmerston, who was the Prime Minister, and other European powers to discuss the option of providing mediation to the United States.

The idea was ultimately rejected after three months of intense discussions. Russell and the British decided to maintain their cautious neutrality stance when dealing with both sides in the American war.

Why Did the British Decide Against Intervention?

Early scholars believed that the British decided against mediation because they felt that Lincoln and the Union would reject it. There was widespread support for the North, but the rest of the world needed the economic engine provided by the South.

Any mediation would create new personal rivalries and divisions that could eventually turn into more fuel for the Civil War fire.

When the Union got a much-needed victory at Antietam, it frustrated Palmerston and Russell because it seemed as if the Confederate cause was hopeless.

Attitudes at home helped to convince the British elites that neutrality was necessary. Although the monarchy and nobles generally supported the Confederacy because of their trade ties, the common person in the UK supported the Union.

With France managing its own venture in Mexico, Britain was forced to turn to Greece and Russia for intervention. By 1863, the idea of mediating had died completely.

The British Almost Officially Recognized the Confederacy

Under the efforts of Lord Russell, mediation came to a head in the summer of 1862. Charles Adams, Sr., warned Washington that the British were interested in interfering between the two parties. If that happened, the goal was to give the South what it wanted. 

The issue that faced Russell was simple. If the Confederacy was given full governing authority under secession, the British faced an all-out war with the remainder of the United States. That would mean an invasion in Canada, naval attacks, and no more grain shipments.

With so much on the line to lose, the British stepped back. The Civil War came to its natural outcome, and we can learn from these moments in history.

Medical Innovations Created by Americans

The United States is coming close to its 250th birthday celebration. One of the unique emphasis points in the American economy has been the emphasis on medicine. Since its founding, thousands of unique innovations have come from the pharmaceutical, education, and innovation found in this country.

Many U.S. researchers have helped to advance the study of nutrition. The principles discovered by American innovation trickle into several areas of science, ranging from supplements to surgical techniques.

If you take products from brands like Quicksilver Scientific, Irwin Naturals, or Enzymedica, you are benefitting (at least in part) from the American investment emphasis in medicine.

Here is a partial list of what U.S. research has given the world since 1900.

The United States Created the Public Health Service in 1902

Although Americans rely on a patchwork platform of insurance, in-network providers, and confusing medical access rules, the U.S. was an early adopter of a national emphasis on better care.

The United States was at the forefront of longer average lifespans for several decades during the 20th century.

Austrian-American Karl Landsteiner developed the system of blood typing in 1901. We still use the A, B, and O method today. The first successful transfusion happened in 1907 because of this work.

During the 1920s, Americans introduced numerous vaccines to global medicine, including diphtheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis, and tetanus. In 1922, U.S. doctors because the first to successfully treat diabetes by using insulin.

The first dose of penicillin given to a patient in the U.S. happened in 1942 to treat a case of septicemia. By 1943, over 400 million units were produced. Americans brought that number to 20.5 billion doses before the end of the second world war.

The 1960s and 70s were another time of vaccine innovation in the United States. Options to fight mumps, rubella, chicken pox, pneumonia, and meningitis were developed during this time.

The 21st Century Brought More American Innovation

Medical innovations shifted from reactive to proactive treatment in the 21st century. That transition started when scientists released the rough draft of the human genome to the public. Doctors could see what all 23,000 genes in the human body could do.

That information led to the development of using human skin cells to create embryonic ones for future medical treatments.

As the 21st century continues, new treatments for cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and other severe health issues are on the horizon. Today, we all have the option to live happy and healthy lives due to the ingenuitive spirit of American medicine.

4 Books About Lewis and Clark’s Expedition Across America

The Lewis and Clark Expedition took place from August 1803 to September 1806. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the adventure right after the completion of the Louisiana Purchase so that the new territory could get mapped.

Lewis and Clark were also tasked with finding a practical route to reach the western half of the continent.

Jefferson and many Americans were worried about Europe trying to establish new colonies along the frontier border. This investment helped to counter that concern.

The Journals of Lewis and Clark by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Several editors and authors have reworked the journals of Lewis and Clark over the years. Their unprecedented journey from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean allowed them to explore a vast amount of the Louisiana Purchase, placing their names in history as they recorded the various people, plants, and animals along the way. This option is one of the best.

Lewis and Clark Among the Indians by James P. Ronda

This book about Lewis and Clark is particularly valuable because of the tribal background information it includes. The appendix places the Sacagawea concept within its accurate perspective, attempting to show how the communication between the adventurers led to the positive outcomes during the expedition. 

The Essential Lewis and Clark by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

Choose this book if you want to take a more nuanced approach to Lewis and Clark’s adventures. The updated version includes the detailed original writing from the journals, archival maps drawn from the journey, and plenty of artwork that the pair developed to describe what they saw. This real-life adventure shows what the experience was like, ranging from mountain crossings to encounters with bears.

Streams to the River, River to the Sea by Scott O’Dell

In this Scholastic book, a young woman experiences the joy and heartbreak of life when she decides to join the Lewis and Clark expedition. The author paints Sacagawea as an abused wife, a caring mother, and a daring adventurer as the group works their way toward the western coast.

Most books that detail the journey of Lewis and Clark are based on their journals. Some fictional stories, including one from the perspective of their dog, add some variety to the mix. If you want to know what really happened, these four books are an excellent place to start.
If you are interested in more books about historical figures, don’t miss these books about Abraham Lincoln.

Best Science Museums to Visit in America

The United States is a large country filled with several geographical wonders and cultural differences. While the East Coast feels more European, the West Coast provides a rustic, laid back personality filled with big skies and open spaces.

You can find farming communities in the Midwest, deserts in the Southwest, and the French/Creole celebrations in the South.


Each region has a different take on how to offer a fantastic science museum. Here are some of the best options to visit.

What U.S. Science Museums Are the Best?

Museum of Science, Boston

Several hands-on activities are available at this museum, making it a delightful stop for all ages. You can explore the science behind colors and light, visit a Butterfly Garden, or enjoy a show at the planetarium. There’s even a 3D ride simulator to bring thrills.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

At over 400,000 square feet, this science museum is one of the largest in the world. The facility’s goal is to bring out the genius in everyone, which means you’ll find several activities to enjoy at every age. You can explore the physics of a tornado, see real-time representations of the Earth with the facilities floating glob, and embrace your curiosity.

California Science Center, Los Angeles

If you visit the permanent exhibits at this facility, your entry into the museum is free. You’ll see interactive and time-limited presentations that range from planetary ecosystems to spatial technology. Several programs are hosted throughout the month, including no-cost shows in the IMAX theater. You can even see the shuttle Endeavour during your tour.

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco

You’ll find a natural history museum, a planetarium, an aquarium, and a working research lab under the same roof when visiting this fantastic site. They sometimes host pajama sleepovers and fun events with penguins to make learning a blast. Don’t miss the four-story tropical rainforest and the photography exhibits during your stay.

Arkansas Museum of Discovery, Little Rock

With over 90 different interactive exhibits, young children will have plenty of fun at this museum. The spotlight is on mathematical applications and general education, helping everyone learn more about how the universe works.

The best science museums to visit in America often include on-site cafés, modern amenities, and gift shops to help everyone enjoy the experience even more. Where do you plan to travel first?

Lessons From the Great Depression You Can Use in Daily Life

The years around the 1930s were a dark period for America. The era known as The Great Recession was one of the worst worse economic collapses in the country’s history, leading to widespread job losses and poverty. Average wages dropped 60%, and many industries ceased production. This was combined with severe droughts that turned the life of everyone upside down.

These difficult times required people to adapt. While things are much different today, with social programs available to help carry some of the burden until a worker can find a new job, it’s essential not to forget that terrible times can strike almost anytime. Just look at the recession and housing market collapse in 2008, or 2020 with the COVID-19 outbreak.

But we aren’t here to talk about economic loss. Instead, we will study a few lessons that people learned during the Great Depression that you can apply to daily life and during times of hardship.

Recycle and Reuse

Put your creativity cap on! Don’t spend money on new things when you can reuse old fabrics, buttons, furniture, and a lot more to craft new interior decor and clothing, such as rags, furniture upholstery, handkerchiefs, artwork, and so on! Disposable bottles and boxes can be used for storage purposes. Following this can help you to save a lot of money that you can then put into saving. Ideally, you have at least six months of emergency savings; some recommend as much as 12 months!

Check on Your Neighbors

During The Great Depression, communities formed to support one another. People worked to make sure that their neighbors didn’t go hungry or needed something they had lying around and not in use. In times of great crises, these communities provide emotional and financial support. Similarly, it would be best to take care of the ones who are less privileged than you.

Save Money

Everyone’s guilty of spending extra on luxuries, from ordering food from a restaurant to overbuying and throwing out the excess, to paying for conveniences such as washing your car or mowing the lawn yard. It’s time to take responsibility for your actions and think about the savings you could enjoy if you performed the chores for yourself. Not only will it save money, but it will help you to change your relationship with money.

Instill Positivity

One of the greatest lessons from The Great Depression is to stay positive and be proud of where you come from. When life throws lemons at you, make lemonade. During The Great Depression, people found happiness in the smallest of things, be it spending time with their loved ones, watching a movie, reading books, or learning a new skill.

Avoid Debt

You should avoid debt like the plague because once you find yourself in debt, there is no way back. If you think that you can pay off debts in the future, you might be wrong because it takes a lot of patience and effort to get out of it. You need to take charge of your finances and list all the debts you have, starting from the lowest to largest. Know the golden rule: buy only what you need and can afford! 

These are just a few lessons you can apply to daily life. You could call The Great Depression a major failure for America. Thankfully, many people learned from that experience, and the country was able to move forward.

Abraham Lincoln Biography Books

Abraham Lincoln’s political career, married life, speeches, contributions, and leadership qualities have been covered by many researchers and writers. He is a well-regarded figure and often cited by people for why they pursued politics. 

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, and emerged as a prominent figure in helping to abolish slavery and guiding the country through the Civil War.

Lincoln was not only a political leader, but he was the epitome of strong leadership, humility, and honesty. His life is filled with lessons for everyone. If you’re keen to read the biography of Abraham Lincoln, check out some of the excellent books that will leave you stunned.

Lincoln Reconsidered

David Herbert Donald wrote a series of essays on the Civil War and Abraham Lincoln. The author discusses the educational and political background of the great leader who was a lawyer, politician, and worked to stop the Civil War. Some of the issues covered in this book are the Emancipation Proclamation and the overall movement against slavery.

The Complete Papers and Writings of Abraham Lincoln

Straight from Lincoln himself, this book covers the thoughts of Lincoln as a lawyer, politician, and a leader. His writings reflect his life from the time he was a lawyer to his Presidency. He was a man of carefully chosen words who believed that slavery was wrong and thus helped to drive the anti-slavery movement. If you want to read more about his ideas and strategies, get your hands on this book.

Lincoln at Peoria: The Turning Point

This book focuses on the Lincoln delivered on October 16, 1854, in Peoria, Illinois. It was the turning point in the life of Lincoln as he faced political hurdles at the beginning of the anti-slavery movement. His speeches have faced much backlash but were critical to the country at that time. His gestures and words came directly from the heart and are so meaningful to read today.

Lincoln The Biography of a Writer

The author Fred Kaplan digs deep into the life of Abraham Lincoln, particularly his literary career that can’t be separated from his life. He was a keen reader of Byron, Burns, and Shakespeare. His thorough reading of literary works shaped much of his views on human nature and love. No other president had ever possessed the art of thoughtful and profound speeches that he delivered to his audience and much touched the hearts of people. This book shows the literary side of Abraham.

If you wanted to explore the life of Lincoln, then these books are an excellent starting point!

Fun Family Activities You Can Explore at Hershey’s Chocolate World

If you’re visiting Pennsylvania with your kids for the first time and you’re looking for places to explore, you can’t miss out on the chocolate-themed wonderland Hershey’s Chocolate World. From roller coasters to sweet treats, this is Willy Wonka’s Chocolate Factory come to life.

Here are some of the exciting places you’ll find at the sweetest tourist spot on Earth.

Hershey Park

Hershey Park was built-in 1907, and has over 14 exhilarating roller coaster rides for families, and 20 rides specially designed for kids. What’s impressive is that the park connects with the Boardwalk, which is a water park with slides, breath-taking water coasters, and many other attractions. You’ll find the food area and live stages for entertainment when you want out of the sun. All-in-all, if you’re up for some real adventuring, it’s a must-visit place that you will never forget. You need two days to explore the entire park!

Zoo America

Zoo America is located adjacent to the park and houses around 200 animals belonging to five regions of North America. It’s a seven acre-park that is a perfect getaway for kids who are fond of seeing animals. Kids who are eight and under get free entrance to the zoo on weekends.

Hershey’s Chocolate World

One of the most amazing tourist spots in Pennsylvania that offers much more than sight-seeing. If you’re a die-hard chocolate fan, there are many different activities for you to explore. You can design your own personal Hershey chocolate bar, watch a movie about the origins of chocolate, and grab some sweet treats! Take a tour of the Chocolate Trolley to learn more about the history of Hershey and how it started.

You’ll find bakery, food court, and Dessert creation studio in the area.

The Hershey Story

The Hershey Story is a museum that showcases the rich history of Milton Hershey. It’s a family-friendly museum that shares the story of the man who pioneered the chocolate brand we all know and love today. You can even make your own chocolate in the chocolate lab!

Plan your next family vacation to Hershey, Pennsylvania! But do make sure you are staying safe and healthy. Always practice extra precautions when traveling, speak with your doctor about what more you could be doing, and think about how immune support products from Argentyn 23 or Quicksilver Scientific may provide the additional support that you want each day!

Famous American Buildings to Visit in Your Lifetime

America is home to many iconic buildings that have been built throughout the country’s history. Some of these blend styles found around the world with more modern aesthetics. If you are a true American by heart or are generally interested in one of the world’s most powerful countries, you better bookmark this article to come back later to when you have your trip scheduled. We have compiled the list of some of the famous (read: best) American buildings to visit in your lifetime. This list will go along with out coverage of monuments throughout the southeast, southwest, northwest, and northeast that are worth a visit.

Walt Disney Concert Halls in Los Angeles

The Walt Disney Concert Hall was built by Frank Gehry in 2003 and remains one of the most coveted concert halls of all time. 

Grand Opera House in Wilmington

Grand Opera House, originally dating back to 1871, is by far the most iconic theater of America that was renovated to a better structure in the year 1973. 

Iowa State Capital in Des Monies

Another historic building in Des Monies is the Iowa State Capital which was constructed in 1886. It has five domes and is certainly one of the most impressive crafts of ancient times. 

Louis Cathedral in New Orleans

The site was built back in 1727 in New Orleans, but the renovated building was completed in the 1860s. It is the oldest Roman Catholic Church. 

Portland Observatory in Portland

The octagonal-shaped tower was used to signal ships coming at the harbor. In a time when there is negligible water travel, this observatory turned museum is a fascinating sight to see. 

Empire State Building in New York 

It reaches tall into the skyline and is undeniably one of the most famous buildings in the world. The Empire State Building was the tallest in the world before the World Trade Center beat it. 

Biltmore Estate in Asheville

Talk about the largest, privately owned house in the U.S. It covers a massive 178,925 sq. feet, constructed with subtle French artwork, and was built for the Vanderbilt family. A visit to this mansion is an exciting venture. 

Falling-Water in Mill Run

Water in the Falling-water house actually falls all the time! A masterpiece of architecture by Frank Lloyd, this magnificent house is open for tours and gives an incomparable enchanting experience. 

The United States of America is home to an abundance of fascinating buildings that can make weeks-long of touring run short! 

Best Books on Founding Fathers

There were seven Founding Fathers who deserves the tribute of heroism, namely George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Maddison, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton. It is good to read about this group to learn about the history of the United States.

One of the best ways to understand them with greater depth is to read books written by people who have made it their life’s work to better known these men.

Best Books on Founding Fathers

The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin was one of the key Founding Fathers, and he wrote a book about himself in 1770. It is fascinating to read the writings of a person who left his mark on history in their own words. The autobiography offers insight into his life, actions, and reasons behind his many choices. 

Washington: The Indispensable Man 

This biography is authored by James Thomas Flexner, who tells the story of George Washington and his guilty romance with his best friend’s wife. The book has four volumes and has won several accolades.

John Adams

The book, John Adams, was written by David McCullough and details the politics around the time and ongoing war with England and within the country’s borders. You will also find valuable insight into human nature and emotions.

The Intimate Lives of the Founding Fathers 

Thomas Fleming writes in The Intimate Lives of the Founding Fathers about heroism and the women who were behind much of the country’s success. It is a story about the struggles, challenges, and the women who earnestly played their parts in birthing this great nation. This book is a must-read for all. 

These books offer great insight into the Found Fathers. Anyone with interest in history or would like to know more about the reasons why the country operates how it does today will find a lot to enjoy with any of the above books. If you are a fan of Civil War books, you will find so much more to enjoy our collection of the best Civil War novels.

Why The Pepperoni Roll is a West Virginia Tradition

Pepperoni rolls, a simple food that consists of baked pepperoni wrapped in cooked yeast and white flour. A delicious delight and West Virginia tradition. This food offers a unique flavor, either hot or cold, the dissolved fat gives the roll a spiced, oily seasoning, and they keep fresh for a long time.

But did you know that pepperoni rolls were first invented, cooked, and sold in West Virginia? This is why the divine snack is a West Virginia tradition.

The Origin of Pepperoni Rolls

It all began in 1927, when the baker and coal miner Giuseppe “Joseph” Argiro, from Country Club Bakery in Fairmont, West Virginia, invented this recipe for fellow-laborers who worked the coal mines. The rolls were a simple snack that stayed fresh and provided a good source of protein and fat. The meal was a hit because not only do it provide a high value of energy, but it was pre-cooked, required no refrigeration, and could be tucked into a pocket or bag wrapped in paper. Today, the heart of the rolls remains true, with only minor modifications being made to spruce up the recipe. 

Pepperoni Rolls and The Tradition

West Virginia takes pride in inventing one of the most popular snacks of the state. Country Club Bakery, now owned by Chris Pallotta, bakes pepperoni rolls fresh using the same recipe from the day the shop opened. The bakery ships out parcels to as many as 50 states where pepperoni roll fans can’t get enough of them. It can be said that this is one of the reasons we would add this food to the list of what makes America inspirational.

Since 1927, the people of Fairmont, West Virginia, have been feasting on this food for as long as they have lived. While other cities of the region have recreated the food, stuffing more ingredients, improvising the shape, and adding to the bread, the original pepperoni roll rules the land. 

If you have a friend or an associate that is an avid fan of the pepperoni roll, you would know who is responsible for its creation. Although for many of us with more unique diets, a carb-heavy and fat-filled item isn’t on all of our dietary lists. However, you can take a probiotic from brands like Klaire Labs, Bioray, or Protocol for Life Balance to help support digestions so you can keep on enjoying your pepperoni rolls!