Archive for the ‘American Patriotism Blog’ Category
Army Spc. Michael A. Dahl Jr.
Born March 21, 1986 (Beaumont, California)
Died October 17, 2009 (Argahndab, Afghanistan)
17th Infantry Regiment
5th Stryker Brigade
2nd Infantry Division
Fort Lewis, Washington
The man who his fellow soldiers described as honest, humble, caring, fun-loving and easy-going died October 17, 2009, in Argahndab, Afghanistan, from wounds suffered when his vehicle was struck by a improvised explosive device, also known as an IED or roadside bomb. He first served in Iraq as a member of the Army Reserve. He took an Arabic class at Riverside Community College before heading to Baghdad. When he returned from combat, he chose to sign up for active duty and was deployed to Afghanistan. His awards and decorations include the Army Commendation Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Iraq Campaign Medal, Global War on Terrorism Medal, Army Service Ribbon, Overseas Ribbon, Armed Forces Reserve Medal — Mobilized, Combat Action Badge, Bronze Star and Purple Heart for his service in both Iraq and Afghanistan. He is survived by his father, Mike, his mother, Patricia, and his brother Angel in California.
His body went from Afghanistan, through Al Udib Air Base in Qatar to Dover Air Force Base in Delaware where it was received by his family. From there it was flown to March Air Reserve Base in Moreno Valley, CA, and sent to Weaver Mortuary, which is just two blocks from his childhood home in Beaumont, CA. His final resting place is at is at Riverside National Cemetery in Riverside, California.
At a ceremony held at Fort Lewis held in honor of Army Spc. Michael A. Dahl Jr., several soldiers left dog tags or coins imprinted with the name of Dahl’s unit. Several women left white roses.
In Beaumont, CA, the name of native son Michael Dahl, Jr. will forever be etched on the veteran’s memorial wall in the town where he grew up before making the ultimate sacrifice for his country. On Memorial Day 2010, the U.S. Army Specialist will be honored when his name becomes the 204th inscribed on the Beaumont Veterans Memorial — a living tribute to local members of the Armed Forces who have defended our country’s freedom.
WORLD WAR 2 EXPERIENCES – Jan Weiss
PERIODS OF WW2
There were several periods in the war:
1. Before WW2
2. Entering WW2
3. During WW2
4. Exiting WW2
5. After WW2
1. I was born in Holland in 1927, an I spent the first part of my life in the Netherlands. World War 2 started in 1940 when I was 13, and finished in 1945 when I was 18.
2. Warning Against Hitler
Hitler wrote a book, Mein Kampf (My fight), and in that book he wrote what thought and what he was going to do. I can remember one of my high school teachers who had this book on his desk, and was reading it even while he was teaching us. In that book Hitler wrote how he wanted to conquer other countries. How he was going to treat the Jews in every nation he occupied. He did this in several stages.
First he would distinguish them from the others (Arians) by insisting they wear the Jewish star on all their clothing. Then they were systematically arrested, and transported to concentration camps in Germany. In those concentration camps they were systematically gassed and cremated. So Hitler himself warned us against himself and his ideas.
3. Oldest Brother’s Prophecy
I can remember my oldest brother (5 years older) talking at the evening table, and warning us against Hitler. The others at the table criticized him for this talk, and disliked him for it. But he could not stop talking. My parents and the other brothers did not read daily papers, and so they were kind of ignorant in comparison.
4. Some Followed Warning.
I remember an author who sailed across the North Sea to England before the war started.. I remember an American minister who traveled from Holland through Belgium, France, into Spain, and sailed from there to America. But most of us were caught by the Germans in Holland and experienced 5 years of Nazi occupation.
5. Warning by Dutch Spy
I remember hearing about a Dutch spy who operated in Germany and warned the Dutch government that the Germans were planning an invasion into Holland. But the government did not listen, and on the first day of invasion German soldiers came out of a ship that had been parked in the harbor of Rotterdam.
6. Mobilization summer 1939
My family used to spend each summer a whole month in Katwijk at the sea, where we spent every day at the sea. My father used to rent a car that would bring the whole family from Rotterdam to Katwijk, with all our belonging. He would rent a whole house, where we would have an evening meal and where we would sleep. In the day we would spend the whole day on the sand and in the water, and my father would sit in a chair and talk to various people about education.
But in the summer of 1939 the Dutch government mobilized the country, and so we could not use the car to return to Rotterdam, and so my father rented with another family a bus, and we returned to Rotterdam in that bus. This was the beginning of a whole change of our life.
On May 5th German planes dropped soldiers from the air into Rotterdam. They also crossed the border between Germany and Holland. Then they also bombed the centre of Rotterdam, so much of it burnt down. We saw people streaming out of the center, seeking new housing in outskirt areas. We saw many houses burnt down.
In the meantime German soldiers marched to the Hague where we had the center of the Dutch government, and on May 10th Holland capitulated, and Nazi government began, and would reign for 5 years. It was an easy take. Any resistance was crushed down with force and speed.
1 . Not much change
In the beginning we did not notice much change. German soldiers were very disciplined. One time a soldier took something from a young boy on a street car. He went to the German commandant, who took him around his soldiers to identify the thief, and when the soldier was identified and he confessed, he was shot and killed by the commandant on the spot.
But slowly circumstances began to change. Less and less food in the stores, and also less and less supplies. In the last year of the war all stores were empty and closed. Also there was no electricity, gas, or coal, only water.
2. Price of Food
My father bought a loaf of bread on the black market, and paid for it a laborer’s monthly salary, and then we would stay in bed much of the day, and have one slice of bread per day, and that was all the food we had.
3. Sugar Beets
One day in the winter of 1944 my brother and I pushed a wheel cart for half a day to get a heap of sugar beets out of a field to bring it home for our family. On the way back I was so hungry that I took a sugar beet, bit into the clay and spit it out until I reached the meat of the beet.
4. Heating and Light
Our hearth was removed, and we bought a little hearth where we could burn wood or coal. The wood was cut from the trees in parks or from bomb shelters. The coal was dug out of the paths in parks. On that little hearth my mother cooked if she had food. It heated the room where it was installed, and at night we sat around the little hearth where we could see just a little. I remember we created electricity with the dynamo on a bicycle, so some of us could read.
5. Underground Experiences
In the last year of the war I was in the underground. We gathered in school gymnasiums where we practiced with brenguns and stenguns. I was able to put a these weapons together blindfolded. But first I had to meet every person at their house and then bring him to the gymnasium whose location they did not know.
6. Gathering News
When the invasion started it became important to gather invasion news, which was not available on the Dutch radio, but only on the English radio. My father did not allow us to this, so one of my friends did it, and typed out the news every day, which I then followed on the map, seeing the allied forces advance from LeHavre all the way into Europe.
One day I approached my friend’s house to get the news, and I saw the German police from a distance, and so I quickly turned back on my path. Later I learned that most of the people who worked on the news had escaped over the roof, but the parents of my friend were arrested, and later on executed.
7. Work Forces
The Germans often arrested males and made them work in Germany. They would barricade a street, and then go from door to door, and get the men out of the house. My mother was smart. She told the soldier that we were sick in bed with an infectious disease. The soldier refused to go near us.
8. Accidental Arrest
My oldest brother was hiding from the Germans, and staying with a family. The German police were after a certain person. They knew his name and the name of the person where he was staying. When they came into the village they asked children for the name of his host, the children pointed to the house of another person with the same name, and that was the host of my oldest brother. So my brother was arrested, first brought to a Dutch concentration camp, and from there to a German concentration camp. After arrival, one of the guards looked at his records, and noticed my brother was “polizilich unbekannt” (not known with the police), and so they let him out of the concentration camp, but made him work in a police station.
9. Bombing by Allied Forces
To prepare the Germans for the invasion, night after night allied planes would fly from England deep into Germany, where they would bomb and destroy many cities. At first we would flee into the cellar, but after a while we would stay in bed and sleep through these operations.
10. Razzia at College
At the end of the war it was dangerous to go to college. One time we had to run from the back of the building, because German soldiers were trying to get into the front of the building, so they could reach students to get them to work for them.
I safely got to the rail road station and rode on the train to Rotterdam, but we then decided that we could not go to college anymore. After the war I returned to the college, but for quite a while I had to ride the train standing in a cattle car, because the Germans had taken all our passenger train cars, and we had to search for them all over Germany.
1. Final Day
When we found out that the Germans had lost the war and had given up, we were all very excited, and after curfew time, when we were not allowed to be on the street (6pm), we went outside and began to share that information and joy.
At a certain moment a convertible with 3 German soldiers drove into our street, stood up in the car, and shouted “Hinein” (Go inside). At that moment it was clear how scared we still were of the Germans, for people ran to their doors and tried to get in, but some doors were closed, and people could not get in.
2. Whole Night of Dancing from street to street
Once we were sure the German occupation had come to an end, we went from street to street for a whole night, singing and dancing for joy. The five years of German occupation had been very hard and scared us a lot.
1. Back to College
After WW2 it was safe to go back to college, and I could sit in the train again.
2. Return of Oldest Brother
One day after the war, our whole family was together in our parental home. And suddenly we heard a key slide into the outdoor lock, the door was opened, and we heard someone come into the house. We were startled, for every key holder was already inside. Who could this be? We spontaneously all ran to the door! And here was my oldest brother. He had walked all the way from Oranienburg, Germany to our home. How excited we all were. We did not know he was still alive, as we thought he was in a concentration camp until the end of the war.
But do not think he told us much. He talked a little, but then asked where his girl friend lived, and then on a borrowed bicycle he drove to her to tell about his return. And even after he returned to the parental home, he told us very little about his concentration camp experiences.
All he told us was the fact that at one time he had been discharged from the concentration camp because he was told he was “polizeilich nicht bekannt” (=not know by the police, they did not know why he was there). Then they made him work on the furnace of a police station, where had enough food and was always warm.
3. Threat of Communistic Russia
By the time I had graduated from the chemical engineering college, we became aware of another threat, namely from communistic Russia. And I was glad to be able to go to the United States in 1950. When I arrived on the boat in the New York harbor and saw the statute of liberty, I felt happy and safe! No more dictators in my life, please!
4. Thanks to the Allied Forces
I will never forget how many men in the Allied Forces died for my liberation from Hitler and his Nazis. It is now 65 years ago that the second world war ended, and my memories are still very vivid. Sometimes I hear people talk about casualties in more recent wars, but none of them can compare in any way with the casualties of World War 2. So thanks to all those young men who probably have forgotten this war. Even today I hope to do something for their children, grandchildren and great grand children.
StoriesofUSA.com honors Army Staff Sergeant Salvatore Giunta of Hiawatha, Iowa. He is the first living member from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq to receive the Medal of Honor. He exposed himself to enemy gunfire to save two fellow soldiers.
LOVING YOUR COUNTRY – Jan Weiss
Look at your baby, and you will see a new individual, with its own proteins, its own DNA, and its own eyes. It has its own soul and will build its own mind. Each one of your babies will be different and will be different from all others,
This has been happening in every family for thousands of years. It has created many different races and many different nations. And we always have seen the same problem. What shall be the relationship between people and races and nations?
History has taught us this relationship is either exclusively one of self love, or of love to the other person. Self love leads to theft, violence and murder. Love to the neighbor inspires service to others outside of oneself.
To groups individuals will express love to the neighbor as love for a church, a society or a country, or even to all countries. But in this talk we will only deal with the love of one’s country.
For centuries people have organized themselves into countries that have lived either in peace or in a state of war. We should never attack another country, but if we are attacked by another country, we are allowed to defend our own country from the love we have for our own country.
Loving our own country excludes the desire to attack another country, and attacking another country really excludes loving our own country., just as attacking another person excludes loving another person.
Life is really very simple: We either choose to love ourselves or we choose to love others, We are either in hell or in heaven, and this will be the same in the material world or the spiritual world, and after death.
By Barbara Pape
This story is about the poorest county in the world in the 1990’s, “Santo Domingo.” This compilation will reveal the paths of this county’s past, present and an estimation of its future.
This investigative report discloses dictatorships, hostile occupations, cruelty, and greed from the Dominican Government and United States’ war-like participation during Santo Domingo’s Revolution in 1871.
It was Lincoln’s’ interests in Santo Domingo. This story tells us of his efforts to abolish of slavery worldwide. The research implies that Lincoln perceived Santo Domingo as an island with military advantages. Unfortunately, these goals were changed after his assassination and President Grants’ expert tutelage.
It is recorded that President Grant was the one who sent Congressional Commissioners on an expedition to determine whether Santo Domingo should be annexed. While, vigorous debates in Congress were pending to clarify a controversy of this commissioned Warship constituted a humanitarian or hostile act.
Included are reports from the Warships of unexpected acts that were unfolding on this expedition, involving our participation to Santo Domingo’s Revolution.
Simultaneously, the commissioners of the expedition were reporting to Congress. Who gave Congress evidence against the Annexation? As the report was revealed to Congress. Congress voted and failed to pass the 2/3 needed on the Annexation. An ending that proved indicative to the politicians of Santo Domingo.
Adding to this report, another prospective that includes the question of “What if” the United States Annexed Santo Domingo 1871? Would this Country have been changed for the good or will it be in the same condition of it is neighboring “Commonwealth” County, “Puerto Rico?” Beginning with the first known written evidence of Santo Domingo’s description of culture and civilization.
“Arawaks Natives lived a Flourishing and Peaceful Existence”
The first recorded inhabitants of the islands before Columbus had come from the North, from the peninsula of Florida and beyond the Greater Antilles. The Arawak Indians settled about 2,000 years ago. These people traveled by canoe from one island to another. They were the one of the first explorers, without documentation. They entered from the islands from the Northern and Southern Americas. Presently, the Arawak native language is still found in the jungles of South America. By the year 1492, the Arawak native groups of the Greater Antilles were recognized as the advanced group culturally and socially, of all island people. They had a long period of internal development. Their existence was identified as flourishing Arawaken Chiefdoms with a complex form of social organization. The top social strata understood and recognized verbally in their native tongue as “ruler” or “governor.”
The next recorded inhabitants were the people of the Caribbean, and known as Taino’s, but sometimes confused as Arawaks. These people took over the island about 1,000 years ago. The Caciques were members of the elite (or) dominant class. They sometimes were identified and confused as the Tainos. This term meant, “people of high rank” (or) “nobility.” Tainos are closely associated to Cacique, who had come from the ranks and enjoyed many rights and privileges. The Cacique and Tainos elite’s controlled the production and distribution of necessities such of everyday living including food, utensils from farming, fishing domestic needs and clothing. In times of war, the Chiefdoms led the fighting men and those who knew the Supernatural, cured the sick and advised people. A second group termed themselves as “naboria”. Naboria lived in the outskirts (or) along the villages.
Slavery was the chief export for the Countries of Africa and Liberia. The Dominican Republic Islands became the slavery-transferring center for their Chiefs to sell their natives as slaves to European Masters. These people became the next native inhabitants and were called Haitians. Presently in our twentieth century, most Dominicans have African (or) mixed African, British, and French ancestry. Small percentages have mostly Carib Indian ancestry and about four-fifths of the people live in rural villages. The rest lives in urban areas. Most of the people live in Western style houses or that-roofed huts. They wear western style clothing. Their main foods include bananas, crabs, crayfish, frog legs, lobsters, and sweet potatoes.
Santo Domingo is the oldest European founded city in the Western Hemisphere. Bartholomew Columbus, the brother of Christopher Columbus who was the first to land in Haiti in 1492, and founded the city, on his second voyage, in 1496 and named it, “Nueva Isabela,” under Spain’s ruling. It is the largest city of the Dominican Republic.
After the City of Santo Domingo was founded by Spain. Spain immediately ordered Spanish settlers to move to Santo Domingo area to strengthen the defense against the Haitians. Spain desired to increase trade for Spanish merchants. This plan backfired and the Haitian’s Rebelled and ordered all the Black settlers back from America to counteract the numbers of Spanish settlers. Spain was defeated and turned over the island to France because of the strength of defense shown by the native Haitians.
This was the beginning of the suffering, selfishness, betrayal, cruelty, bloodshed, hunger and poverty. This country was divided into two individual sections; French and native Haitians. These divisions created obscurity by distance, prejudice, illusion, and misunderstanding and accumulated misinformation. While, the French sections prospered while the Spanish and Native Haitian sections suffered from pure neglect. Their suffering has lasted for over two centuries.
A Progressive Era for Santo Domingo
Finally, the Empire fell after several dictatorships. The people of Santo Domingo changed their political position and move into a Democratic Era. They elected a President.
Their first President was under France’s Rule and President Geffrard had long term goals and several much-needed projects to improve Santo Domingo. He started with overhauling the Country’s Constitution, immediately. He reformed the Army (at the peoples’ request). He founded the National Law School, Revitalized the Medical School, restructured the Public Education system, School of Art and Naval Academy, and improved the roads and the water supply. Some of Geffrard’s initiatives met with mixed success.
President Geffrard desired progress for his country, with opposition, occasionally blocked by political pressures. He even fought for the widening and improving Education but it remained an Elite monopoly for the French section. The fact is that the rest of the government did not want to take the responsibility of educating every child or adult and ignorance became the tragic result. He forced a straightforward course of progress, but this action was interpreted by his people as “weak.” Nevertheless, the existence of conspiracy was in the heart of political intrigue and it created a “Mania” in everyone.
This President gains proposal for diplomatic support. He negotiated a Détente for five years with the Dominican Regime of Pedro Santana. Then, unexpectedly, and abruptly, Santana delivers Santo Domingo to Isabella II, at the hand of force.
President Geffrard was stunned and claimed that this action was a breach of the Monroe Doctrine. At this time, the hand of force from Spain angered President Geffrard, Europe, and America. They became allies and protested against the
Occupation of Dominican Territory by Spain. President Geffrard told Spain that; “Haiti will never recognized the Spanish Annexation. He declared that he would use all means in his power to assure Haiti’s interests. Assuring Haiti’s interest was to support for the Dominican insurgency.
An immediate protest broke out and a Guerrilla War started in May 1861 from the Sanctuaries. General Cabral and Sanchez launched a struggle to expel the Spanish Armies. Shortly after this incident, Geffrard was forced to surrender to Soulouque and Haiti had to drop its intervention and reluctantly forced to recognize the Spanish Sovereignty and came to the heels of the Spanish intimidators.
America Displays Interest for Santo Domingo
After Haiti’s embarrassment by Spain, President Geffrard gained an important diplomatic backer, Abraham Lincoln. On December 3, 1861, Abraham Lincoln told Congress: “If any good reason exists why we should persevere longer in withholding our recognition of the independence and sovereignty of Haiti and Liberia.” “I am unable to discern it.” After his display of interest, Legislation provided the United States Commissions to both Countries. It was quickly approved and signed by the Emancipator (who ultimately destined to free several times as many slaves). The Treaty of Amity and Commerce in 1862 with Liberia was drawn. Haiti was the sole
Place in the West Indies where the Stars and Stripes were welcome.
At the core of a series of dictatorships and Presidents whose idea of Salvation was to place the Country as a Protectorate under some European (or) American power
In addition, subject to threats of European creditors, who collected their debts with Warships
stationed in their Harbors. The people of Dominican Republic saw the rest of the Americans had been liberated. The people of Santo Domingo longed to enjoy this status. Just when Spanish America was proclaiming its “independence” from Spain. Santo Domingo freed itself from France and proclaimed its “independence from Spain in 1808. Every time this country (or) its rulers took this step. They would search for a protector to defend them. This was an ongoing strategy.
In 1854, Cazneau tells us that the American Republic had not recognized its Independence by Treaty. Since the independence was forced to depend on the good ill of France and England for temporary relief afforded by the existing Truce with Haiti. The negotiation of a Treaty with the United States was overwhelmingly welcomed. General Mella’s mission was for negotiating for the return of the Dominican Republic to its Allegiance to Spain.
After the re-election of General Santana, Santo Domingo decided it was time for establishing close relations with United States. Santana’s policy was the creation of the Dominican Republic as an independent American power and under the protection of the United States.
They drafted a specific tract of land that was to agree upon the confirmation in general with other existing commercial treaties negotiated by the United States, and demanded an extra modified motive to be expressed in the statement about the 27th article acquisition regarding, “a strategic tract as a coaling depot in Samana Bay”. However, the acquision was re-drafted again, with specific directions agreed upon. Indicating a mile square of territory for the coaling depot in Samana Bay was sufficient.
The care was to be exerted in obtaining this tract land for the government of the United States and for an indefinite period that all rights of authority and control over it, which included at an annual rental of not more than two (or) three hundred dollars.
The possession of this specific tract land Treaty by the United States and with this its’ demands should be pointed out by the American Agent; stating that this would give stability to the Dominican Republic, and if, should the Depot not be granted, and the other provisions desired not to be obtained, the United State Senate and the President might not even under such circumstances be willing to submit it to that body for it’s approval. Conclusively, the negotiations were to be accomplished speedily, and the ratification of the Dominican Government was to be procured before General Cazneau’s return with the signed Treaty to the United States.
This was a beginning of a 22-year occupation and domination after the dictator Boyer died. Dominican Republic entered a period of anarchy. A liberation movement began under the rule of Juan Pablo Duarte and he secured a second independence.
After Duarte’s independence was won. Duarte was expelled from the country. The recovery of Independence was followed by another state of anarchy. This was led by the President named, General Pedro Santana in 1861. At this time, He asked Spain to Annex Santo Domingo.
America Negotiates for Abolishing Slavery Worldwide
President Lincoln and Secretary of the Interior Caleb Smith were in favor of the Colonization of Emancipated Negroes in West Indies and in Liberia. In 1862, Senator Wilson from Massachusetts introduced a bill to abolish Slavery. President Lincoln wanted to abolish slavery worldwide and he perceived the military advantage that Santo Domingo provided. Nevertheless, the Assassination of President Lincoln created unexpected and greedy direction. President Grant altered and changed Lincoln’s direction for the Annexation. At this point, Grant was quick to detect the monetary advantages of the Annexation. This is when Cazneau and Faben was formed as a New York company known as “American West Indies Company” It was declared to purchase extensive tracts of land for Colonization purposes with the assistance of Spanish authorities. They were to settle on the land North Santo Domingo. However, active prejudice was increased by Captain George B. McClellan, who accompanied General Cazneau to the republic on the U.S.S Constitution for a survey. His news about a survey announced the operations and the opinions that the United States; that they wanted to establish a “Coaling Depot” in the harbor of Carenero Chico, and should obtain for that purpose, and the control as well of Levantados Bay were at once reported in Santo Domingo. This alarmed the European Consuls. General Santana was the one who raised the cry; “that the United States intended to Annex the county and conspire to betray the colored population into
slavery. But, it was Santanna, he was the one conspiring to betray the colored population into slavery.
General Cazneau was known as “a man of American ideas.” He had his share of obstacles with the European Consuls. The Consuls are the ones, who had rumored
to the rest of the people of Dominican Republic, “that the United States intended to seize Dominican Territory, set aside the native whites, and enslave the blacks”. President and his cabinet sent out different opinions to resist the active prejudice.
In 1864, a Negro leader from Puerto Plata named, General Luperon participated in the Rebellion opposing Santana. Luperon was sent to prevent the onward march of the troops commanded by Salcedo, which took in Barrancon. In 1865, the towns in Santo Domingo proclaimed state of Rebellion against the government of Santana. The chief figures were General Luperon and expatriate Englishman named, Theodore Stanley Heineken, who was Assistant to Sir Robert Schomburgh, British Consul. He opposed the treaty with the United States announcing a determination as strong as that of its predecessor to come to no agreement with Spain other than on based upon the unconditional evacuation of the island.
In 1869, President Baez, who was the president at that time, was confronted with financial difficulties of his government . His recourse was to guise “Metallic Bonds” to offer to other countries for monetary support. After he sold them, he would then let them depreciated to twenty cents on the dollar. Another one of Baez’s attempts to relieve this course was by negotiating a European loan. The loan was known as the Santo Domingo Government Loan of 1869 where it was to be a front. This was temporary measurement to enable Baez’s administration pending course to pursue the United States Government for an Annexation with regard to the Dominican Republic.
The European contract provided an advance of L757,700 sterling backed by English Bankers that was headed by Hartmont & Company. After Baez found out the realities of the loan, he attempted to show his unwillingness to mortgage his country’s resources, by refusing the request of a lease the Bay of Samana for fifty years. The terms were to issue bonds where it was to be redeemed at par, in cash after six months notice (or) at par by an accumulated Binding fund after 25 years by semi-annual drawings. This strategy was to secure the repayment of the loan with interest and was to be on the first and only lien of the state. The general property and revenue were to be liable, in addition of the entire proceeds of receipts of the export and import customs dues of the ports of Santo Domingo and Puerto Plate, which were the royalties produced from the working and the exports of Guano from the island Alta Vela.
In addition, the revenues arising from the coal and other mines and minerals, mahogany and other woods from Peninsula of Samana were included in the European Loan. This loan objective was also guise to secure the construction of highroads and railways. But, Baez intentions were not to construct, he desired the loan for redemption of a portion of the outstanding paper currency and thereafter for the personal needs of the members of his government. Baez’s Senators intervened and modified the amount of the loan down to L420,000 sterling. His Senate further modified the conditions of the original agreement to add that Hartmont & his associates were to receive a commission of L100,000 sterling in twenty-four years.
President Baez pursued the Annexation to the United States. He wanted to render the income of American Administration less inclined then to the predecessor to further the ambitions of his antagonist. At this time, the Blue party forgot their differences and renewed their activities in Spring of 1869 and raised the cry for the
annexation to the United States. This the time the North Atlantic Fleet was assigned to aid and hold back the resistant of the Rebellion in Dominican Republic.
In 1871, this action promoted the Congressional resolution to determine whether Santo Domingo should be annexed as a territory of the United States. The U.S.S. Tennessee was commissioned to Santo Domingo. The ship left the New York Harbor on January 18, 1871, under the command of Captain William G. Temple. She carried on board three (3) appointed Commissioners, their clerical staff, nine (9) Scientist and ten (10) Newspapermen. The purpose of the cruise was to explore, convey and determine whether Santo Domingo people wished to be annex to the United States. The members of the expedition were charged with a broad mission; they were to determine the political state of the Dominican Republic ascertain whether the people wished the annexed, survey the minerals, agricultural and industrial resources as well as the bays and harbors, and review the treaties between the Dominican Republic and foreign nations. They were also called to support President Baez and give him the support upon his request.
An Acquisition for Annexation
San Domingo had voluntarily sought for United States for the Annexation and President Lincoln had a long interest in outright Annexation (or, planning, a base at Samana Bay) wasted no time in negotiation and a Treaty of U. S. Annexation (signed 29 November 1868). The Treaty failed to receive the requested two-thirds vote of the Senate. The moment it was know that the United States has entirely abandoned the Project, a free port will be negotiated for by European nations in the Bay of Samana. A large commercial city would spring up, to which we will be tributary, without receiving corresponding benefits, and then will be seen the folly of our rejecting so great a prize. There was much debate as to United States role in the Caribbean, and whether sending a U.S. Navy warship constituted a humanitarian or a hostile act.
The United States concluded that Santo Domingo was weak in power, numbering less than one hundred, twenty thousand souls. But, possessed one of the richest territories under the sun. Santo Domingo is desirable because of its geographical position. It is the entrance to the Caribbean Sea and the Isthmus transit of commerce. At present, our coastal trade was between the States bordering the Atlantic and those bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. must pass through foreign countries to get by sea from Georgia to the west coast of California. Another positive recognition was in case of a foreign war it would give us strategically position to all the islands, and thus prevent an enemy from ever attacking our very coast in surprise. But, the idea of its capability of supporting millions of people in luxury was appealing and obvious.
Congress appointed three commissioners for the expedition; ex-Senator Wade, Professor White, of Cornell University and Dr. Samuel G. Howe, of Boston. Allan A. Burton was appointed Secretary. Accompanying the commissioners were their clerical staff, nine scientists, ten newspapermen in the addition to a compliment of officers and seamen of the U. S. Navy. Who departed from New York city on the U.S.S. Tennessee on the 17th day of January.
The United States government knew that the people of San Domingo were not capable of maintaining themselves in their present condition and must search for outside support, which encouraged the annexation. The native people of San Domingo yearned for our protection of the free institutions, our laws, and our cultural progress and in return, United States wanted the geographical location.
The Debate at Home
Senator Sumner, in anticipation of the report of the San Domingo Commission, March 23, offered resolutions denouncing the President’s use of the United States Navy on the coasts of San Domingo during the pendency of negotiations for the acquisition of a part of the island as an act of hostility against a friendly nation, and anticipation of the war powers granted by the Constitution. On the 27th, the Senator delivered a long speech in support of his resolutions. After a debate, in which Senator Schurz strongly supported the resolutions, the latter were, on the 29th, tabled by a vote of 39 to 16.
The United States North Atlantic Fleet is Assigned to the San Domingo to Hold Back the Resistance from the Natives.
Two years before the Congressional expedition for the Annexation,
The Severn, a flagship, sailed from Hampton Roads December 3, 1870 touched at Bermuda, St. Thomas, San Juan , in Porto Rico, and Samana, and arrived at St. Domingo City January 1 1871. She proceeded thence to Port au Prince and return to Key West February 12. On February 10, she was sent to the island of San Domingo, in which vicinity she remained until May 17, when she sailed for Boston, arriving there May 29.
The Yantic, after completing the deep-sea soundings in which she had been engaged, cruised on the San Domingo coast until May 19, 1870 at which she proceeded to Key West, towing the iron-clad Manhattan to Delaware breakwater, entered Norfolk, and was put out of commission August 1.
The USS Nantasket had been stationed on the coast of San Domingo one-year prior to the ordered expedition to halt the aggression against Baez. Nantasket’s second year was involved to be specially engaged in facilitating the movements and researches of the San Domingo Commissioners.
The Swatara left San Domingo November 14, 1870 and return on December 22. She returned and remained on the coast until September 29th.
The Shawmut was on temporary duty in the North Atlantic fleet, and sailed to San Domingo on August 28.
These Captains, crews and ships were more involved in Santo Domingo’s desire for Annexation. More involved in a battle for freedom and independence. But, the new strategy of posturing this hungry country of Independence.
This mission was one aspect for the Colonization and flourishing profits that was being exercised worldwide, according to the letters corresponded to the Naval Secretary of the Navy, Mr. George M. Robison.
This activity had been evolving worldwide with Spain in the lead. There was anger towards Spain’s force and aggression forced the French to surrender This is when they found new allies such as the United States. Congress decisively commissioned a stream frigate named, “USS Tennessee,” which was under the command of Captain William G. Temple at this time. It left New York harbor on the 18th January 1871. Arriving in San Domingo seven days later. She carried on board the three commissioners, their clerical staff, nine scientists, and ten newspapermen in addition to her compliment of officers and seamen of the U. S. Navy. The members of the expedition were charge with a broad mission: they were to determine the political state of the Dominican Republic, and to ascertain whether they wished to be annexed to the United States. The expedition group surveyed the mineral, agricultural, and industrial resources as well as the bays and harbors. They reviewed treaties between the Dominican Republican and other foreign nations.
U.S.S. Tennessee origins that were commissioned
USS Tennessee, a screw frigate, laid in 1863 known as Madawaska, renamed in 1869.
Names of the Captain and Crew:
Captain William G. Temple, Commander
Lieutenant Commanders ; George W. Hayward , Charles S. Cotton
G. D. B. Glidden, G. F.F. Wilde, and H.C. Nields.
Lieutenant, Wallace Graham
Masters, C. C. Cornwell and F.W. Nichols
Ensigns, D. H Mahan, J. H. C. Coffin, H T. Monohan, William H. Turner, J.W. Graydon, and R. Mitchell
Surgeon, James McMaster.
Passed Assistant Surgeon, William S. Fort.
Assistant Surgeon, M. L. Ruth.
Paymaster, T.T. Caswell
Chief Engineer, D.B. Macomb.
First Assistant Engineers, G.M.L. MacCarty, Truman M. Jones, and E.A. Magee.
First Lieutenant Marines, Frank D. Webster.
Boatswain, Charles Miller.
Gunner, Thomas P. Venable.
Silmaker, Fransic Boom
The commissioners landed. The Scientist dispatched scientific expeditions. The Geologist and others explored into the interior. President Baez reassures them the liberty to exercise their functions. The Commissioners requested President Baez to furnish a safe-conduct from Cabral, or whomever else they may desire to have brought there, for questioning them relative to Annexation, to which Baez gave his consent. At the same time, President Grant notified the Commissioners that Cabral was near Azua, with two regiments of Haitians. He stated, “that he was waiting for three more regiments and some artillery to make extensive demonstrations.”
Easily having the upper hand, President Buenaventura Baez constituted intervention in the internal affairs of Santo Domingo. A year before the expedition, President Grant ordered the North Atlantic Fleet into Haitian waters with instructions to halt the aggression against Baez. The Rear Admiral Charles H. Poor, USN delivered the president’s message to Nissage on 10 February 1870, stating, ” Any interference or attack will dismember the American Republic”.
The Commissioners Report
The report of the San Domingo Commission was submitted to the Senate on the 5th of April 1871 by the President Grant, with an accompanying message calling attention to the fact that the report was more than sustained that all that they had heretofore said in regard productiveness and healthfulness of San Domingo, of the unanimity of the people for Annexation to the United States, and of their peaceable character, and explaining his motives in the whole matter of Dominican Annexation. He had not contemplated, when entering upon, his administration, the Acquisition of Insular (separate) possessions, though believing that our institutions were broad enough to extend over the entire Continent as rapidly as other peoples might desire to themselves under our protection, and that we should not permit any Independent government within the limits of North American to pass from a condition of independence to one of ownership or protection under a European power. The proposition of Annexation came to President Baez soon after his Inauguration. Baez who represented the capacity of the island, the desire of his people, and their character and habits, about as they have been described by the Commissioners’ report, and stated that, being weak in numbers and poor in purse, they were not capable of developing their great resources; that the people had no incentive to industry on account of lack of protection for their accumulations; and that, if not accepted by the United States, with institutions which they loved above those of any other nation, they would be compelled to seek protection elsewhere.
After this happened, the country again casted off the Spanish Yoke and proclaimed its independence for the third time. With it, they squander and became a chaotic strife until 1915. Then, the United States Naval Captain H.S. Knapp landed on the island and imposed absolute Military Rule under orders of President Woodrow Wilson. The occupation lasted until 1924, approximately eight years. After all, does this country have the strength to pull out of their present demise? Santo Domingo is still the poorest country in the world. Still, the people of this country are neglected in education and the skills to progressively get themselves out of this situation, even with the help of the United States. I question the validity of the United States involvement’s of assistance. I understand President Lincoln had a perspective of the state of the affairs in Santo Domingo’s time of need for Independence from the European financial stronghold. I knew that Lincoln’s idea of Military territorial point for the protection and utilization of the Caribbean canal that it offered was for the future of United States. But after Lincoln’s death, and under President Grant, he turned Lincoln’s idea of Colonization and Military needs into his ideas of profits and deception. Which I have presented in the factual research of this project. I want to continue the perspective a little further.
A Historical Perspective
“What if,” Santo Domingo was Annexed to the United States? Where would Santo Domingo be economically, socially, and politically “rich” with the aid of the United States?
This perspective should add to Santo Domingo’s misfortune historical past. “Puerto Rico” is a country in the Caribbean that the United States assisted in drafting a local constitution, subordinate to and in conformity with the United States Constitution and was hence forward to dominate as a “Commonwealth.” In comparison, both countries are obviously in the same geographical area. Puerto Rico’s has progressed economically, socially and politically evolved contrary to reports. Puerto Rico is another Island that was discovered by Christopher Columbus. Puerto Rican’s first recorded inhabitants were Aborigines that migrated north from South America. The last inhabitants were Tainos. They were also primitive and peaceful. In Pre-Columbian times, the only threats to the Tainos were the Caribes. Who periodically sacked and pillaged the islands throughout the region.
Puerto Rico (meaning Rich Port) received a formal Charter from the Spanish Crown, as the City of San Juan Bautista. Today, they are recognized as the oldest Municipality under the American flag.
During the first half of the 16th Century, the population disappeared. Some fled, but, most died of disease and abuse under Spanish rule. The natives felt that this was their punishment for their friendly hospitality and Spain enslaved these people for their quest for Gold.
In 1518, African slaves were imported to work in Puerto Rico’s agriculture. As the new world were in a directional Era of Colonization. Puerto Rico was identified as a strategically placed guardian of Trans-Atlantic Sea Routes. And Yes, that fact “Rich Port” was a reality and ever so valuable. In the 17th and 18th Centuries, the natives repeated the attempt to free themselves of European Rule with a Revolution. During this time, Puerto Rican strengthens them to become more self-sufficient.
However, Spain’s golden years were in the 19th Century, when Madrid regime would decree to liberal colonial policies. This action named a loyal Caribbean to be eligible to represent his island in the Spanish Parliament. When a year later he found himself thrown into the dungeon, which elevated decades of turmoil and insecurity. After this episode past, Puerto Ricans emerged as the new world people with the loyalty to Spain.
Until 1898, a reassurance of Western and Hemisphere Naval Strategists found the island in their sights of American Architects of “manifest destiny” of a Coaling Station for their fleets and outpost positioned to defend the Atlantic Ocean approaches in the Canal through Central America. This brought the American invasion. U.S. Troops waded ashore on July 25, 1898. Puerto Ricans were “overjoyed” at the prospect of a stable democracy, economic opportunity and guaranteed civil liberties. It became clear, mother Spain’s 400-year reign was endangered. The people were found surprisingly tolerant not loyal to Spain and it proved no match for the vigor and brilliance of American eagle.
Sovereignty became a reality for Puerto Ricans. Then the changes became evident; the mainland moguls were allowed to buy prime acreage from thousands of subsistence farmers, the local legislature was powerless, Federal funding for primary and secondary education, and statehood? But, Puerto Rican politicians wanted
Autonomy! But the reality was that even under the United States rule, Puerto Rico was still suffering from neglect and the population boom was renowned as” the poorhouse of the Caribbean”.
In the 1940’s, when World War II broke out, Puerto Ricans were trying to replenishing their economy with paychecks that were sent home from the combat troops of Puerto Rican soldiers. At this time, a new politician emerged and was empowered, his name was Munoz-Marin Rico. He was well verse and in written in English. He spoke eloquently. He had well connections with friends of the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He re-aligned the dawning of the age of de-colonization, as well the outbreak of the cold war.
In 1947, a bill was drawn to permit Puerto Rican to elect their own Governor and Communions became Anathema on the mainland, the chief executive dumped the social style economic development policies to promote private-sector investment, utilizing an obscure 28 year old Federal tax loophole. As the initiative flourished, agriculture workers were inundated the cities in search of factory jobs, and hundreds of thousands migrated to New York and other Northeastern states looking for work.
In 1950, Congress assisted Puerto Ricans to draft a local constitution, subordinate to and in conformity with the United States Constitution. Also, Congress recorded to the effect that its delegation of certain powers would in no way diminish United States Sovereignty over Puerto Rico. The territory nonetheless was henceforward too denominated as a “Commonwealth”. In English terms, “Free Associated State”. It was later evident, that a strategy of simultaneous illusions that was created by the Governor of Puerto Rico. This obviously embarrassed Congress and Congress’s reaction was of jealousy of its prerogatives were not seen and the people were induced to believe they were acquiring a true self-government and the popular party was defeated.
Then, Worldwide American Commercial Dominance sky-rocketed encouraging optimism among the fatalistic people. Unfortunately, the popular Democratic Party returned to office under Marin and San Juan regime decided to cooperate with Washington on defense/foreign policy issues. They welcomed and rewarded mainland Capitalists. This action successfully convinced the Eisenhower administration to have the United Nations to delete Puerto Rico from its hit list of colonies. At the same time, Marin quietly eliminated bilingual education in the schools, which concluded a generation that would be taught that the island and United States were distinctive and separated “Countries” linked through a bilateral “Compact” with the interruption that United States and Puerto Rico are different and they were told they were not “Americans”. This made the Islanders question their citizenships, which risk themselves being accused by pro commonwealth propagandists, dis-loyalist to their “Country”. A few years later, Marin lobbied Congress for “Autonomy” and got nowhere with the “Commonwealth” status. Although, Puerto Rico’s “economic miracle” steadily advanced, Federal Cold Warriors began touting the island. The leaders with their newly independence, utilized a model of Western-Style development. The dependable dominance in a Western-Style undoubably contributed to the increase in manufacturing investment, by guaranteeing a consistently hospitable industrial climate and in return, created the resulting job-growth and enhanced well being to the unique political status. The cries for Colonialism fell upon deaf ears. Tourism flourished due to the Cuban upraises and abruptly disappeared from the American travel
itineraries and overnight Puerto Rico tourism motivated the development of Casinos, hotels, luxurious resorts, nightclubs, posh restaurants and plenty of jobs for everyone. But, the population excelled and approaching one million, which created the northeastern urban ghettos. Meanwhile, the middle class was arising into existence and they became a noticeable pro-statehood populace. Marin became a “showcase of Democracy”. In which it came obvious that Marin again led the commonwealth party to victory at the elections. This was the same time a “State Dinner” was in order for the Governor, during the beginning of the Kennedy Presidency.
In 1960, Marin attempted his own political agenda that angered Marin loyalist and a scandal created a tactical backfire. Thanks to boycotts and the disorganization of the apolitical parties this event created the splitting of the votes for the better showing of pro-statehood groups and resulted in a new progressive party.
In 1970, Recession struck Puerto Rico and the State University was consumed by the Viet Nam War, which created an “Anti-Yankee” in which scared prominent investors an Marin was shortly after exiled to Rome, Italy.
Presently in the 1990’s, Pedro Rossello came into the political scene as a pro-statehood party. By the year’s end, Rossello was the first to lead the island first-ever-victorious campaign against a referendum-proposition and defeating the party in power. It is obvious the majority of this county wanted “Statehood.” but, a year later, “Statehood” was voted down by the people.
Does this answer the question? Would Santo Domingo be better if America Annexed this country? the answer is “No”
The Colonization settlements from Spain, France, and England sustained this Country’s ignorance, fragmentation of its people, and the continued despair of their unproductive economic structures.
The “Worlds” actions and attitudes of arrogance, presumption and greedy. Before their blight, Santo Domingo was peaceful and had a good plan of “Democratic values” that fit their lifestyles, attitudes, cultures and traditions.
Super Powers, who force ideals, cultures and traditions of others, are not always right in the name of Colonization.
We shall let the earth and its’ people gain their own personal independence of themselves, with dignity. We shall provide neighboring countries, the respect of tranquillity is that life can offer. It shall be obvious to all of us, historically, that socialistic governments is the death of independent living and self-sufficiency.
Micro – Fiche: Senate Documents relating Annexation of Santo Domingo
1. Instructions issued to Commander of Ship, “Tennessee”
*S.exdoc 45 (41-3) 1440
2. Message of President, asking list of privileges accompanying or relating to San
*H.exdoc 237 (41-2) 1425
3. Message of President, on correspondence with and orders issued to Commander of
our naval squadron in water of island of San Domingo since commencement of late.
*S.exdoc 34 (41-3) 1440
4. Message of president, on proposed Annexation of Dominican portion of island of San Domingo.
*S.doc 17 (41-3) 1440
5. Message of President, transmitting report of Commission of inquiry to island of Santo Domingo.
*S.exdoc (42-43) 1466
6. Resolution of copies of papers and correspondence on proposed Annexation of Dominican portion of island of San Domingo.
*Smisdoc 10 (41-3) 1442
Library of Congress-film on newspaper clippings relating The commission expedition
Department of the Navy-film, Captains notes; Captain William G. Temple on the “USS Tennessee” with the commissioned Expedition, 1871
Reference information of early inhabitants and social organization from the book, “Written in Blood” by Heinl and Heinl – (We need to get permission to publish)
March 19, 2002
Seven Locks Press
31 W. Warner Avenue, Suite 8
Santa Ana,CA 92704
Dear Mr. Riordan:
I have written a short Documentary entitled, “Hands Off Santo Domingo.” This investigative compilation of information focuses on early colonization movement from country’s of; Spain, France, and France.
This documentary includes United States’ interest and Congressional efforts to Annex Santo Domingo for the sole claim of military advantages during the Civil War. It also reveals this country’s abused experience from the dictatorships, hostile occupations, cruelty, and greed from the Dominican Government, and surprisingly discloses United State’s war-like participation during the Santo Domingo’s Revolution in 1871.
I have included a comparative question of; “What if,” America annexed Santo Domingo in 1871, would it still be the poorest country in the world today, in 2002?
My correspondence with a variety of historical institutions has convinced me the vast potential relationship and its’ value. It is approximately 31 written pages and stored on computer program Microsoft Word.
This documentary is a product of three years of research. It is actually a spin-off from another book I have transcribed and written from Esther Deming Dana’s Diary dating 1871. This information of the Annexation was given from the diary. I have included detail bibliography with names, articles, and information from microfiche.